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Romania - Essential Data

Official Name


Geographical Location

Romania is located in SE Central Europe, on the lower Danube and bordering on the Black Sea. The 45o parallel of North latitude and the 25o East line of longitude is crossing Romania.

Extreme point




North Horodistea village




South Zimnicea town




East Sulina town




West Beba Veche commune





Total length 3149.9 km; Borders: NE and E on the Republic of Moldova (681.3 km); N and E on the Ukraine (649.4 km); SE on the Black Sea (193.5 km); S on Bulgaria (631.3 km); SW on Yugoslavian Federation (546.4 km); W on Hungary (448.0 km).


238,391 sq. km (11th in Europe)


31% of Romania's surface is covered by mountains, 33% by hills and tablelands, and the rest of 36% by plains. The mountains - the Carpathians, feature three main groups: Eastern, Southern (the highest - Moldoveanu Peak, in Fagarasi Mountains: 2.543 m) and Western Carpathians. The Danube Delta, located north of the Plateau of Dobroudja, stretches over 4.340 sq.km.


temperate continental, with slight ocean influences in the West, Medoiterranean in the South-West and excessively continental in the North-East.

Official Language

Romanian. Belonging to the family of Romance languages, Romanian descends from the Latin spoken in Dacia and Moesia in ancient times.

Standard Time

GMT + 2 hours. Since last Sunday in March to last Sunday in October, the Daylight Saving Time applies.

Weights and Measures

The metric system is in force since 1866.


1 LEU (plural - LEI) = 100 BANI (singular - BAN). See here Exchange rates!

Administrative Division

County; town; commune, village. There are: 41 counties plus the capital, Bucharest (with a county status); 263 towns (of which 84 municipalities); 2,688 communes (with 13,094 villages).


Bucharest - Divided into six administrative districts and the Ilfov Agricultural Sector. Situated in the South of the country, in the Romanian Plain, at an altitude of 70-90m, on the rivers Dambovita and Colentina, the city dates from the 14th century. Capital of Wallachia in the 17th - 19th centuries, then of Romania since 1862. Population - 2,013,911.

Main Cities

Constanta: 342,394 people; Iasi: 348,489 people; Timisoara: 329,111 people; Cluj-Napoca: 331,476 people; Galati: 338,596 people; Brasov: 314,219 people; Craiova: 314,920 people; Ploiesti: 251,348 people; Braila: 233,756 people.


On the Black Sea Coast - Constanta; Mangalia.

On the Danube - Orsova; Drobeta-Turnu Severin; Turnu Magurele; Giurgiu; Oltenita; Calarasi; Cernavoda; Braila; Galati; Tulcea and Sulina.


Bucharest-Otopeni; Constanta - Mihail Kogalniceanu; Timisoara; Bucharest-Baneasa; Bacau; Baia Mare; Caransebes; Cluj-Napoca; Craiova; Deva; Iasi; Oradea; Satu Mare; Târgu Mures; Tulcea; Suceava; Arad; Sibiu.


Total number - 22,430,000 (January 1st, 2001), 94.2 inh./sq.km. According to the census returns of January 7, 1992, Romania's population structure by nationality is: Romanians 89.4%; Hungarians 7.1%; Germans 0.5%; Ukrainians 0.3%; Jews 0.04%; Others 2.66%. About 8 million Romanians live outside the country's boundaries. Urban population: 55%. More details...

Population structure by nationalities

Population structure by nationality


Orthodox: 86.8%; Roman-Catholic: 5.0%; Reformed: 3.5%; Greek-Catholic: 1%; Others: 3.7%.

Population structure by religion

Population structure by religion

 State Organization

The Constitution adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 1991 proclaims " Romania is a national, sovereign and independent, unitary and indivisible state".

Form of Government


President of Romania

The President of Romania is elected directly by citizens, for maximum two four-years mandates. The President of Romania nominates a candidate for the post of Prime Minister and appoints the Government on the basis of the confidence vote granted by Parliament. Last elections: November 2000. Present President: Traian Basescu


Two Chambers Parliament: the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Elected by universal vote for a four-years term. Last elections were held in November 2000. President of the Senate: Nicolae Vacaroiu. President of the Chamber of Deputies: Bogdan Olteanu

Prime Minister

Prime Minister is appointed by the President of Romania at the proposal of the Governmental Party. Acting Prime Minister: Calin Popescu-Tariceanu

National Flag

Three equal vertical stripes, next to the staff blue, yellow and red.

National Coat-of-Arms (since 1992)

An eagle holding a cross in its beak and a sword and a scepter in its claws as well as the symbols of the historical provinces, Wallachia, Moldavia, Transylvania, Banat and Dobrudja.

National Coat-of-Arms

State Anthem (since 1990)

"Awake, Thee, Romanian", lyrics Andrei Muresanu, music Anton Pann. (Text and music...)

National Day (since 1990)

The First of December (anniversary of the 1918 Union of all Romanians into one single state).

Legal holidays

January 1 and 2; 2nd Easter Day; May Day; December 1, December 25 and 26

Gross Domestic Product

 Estimates for 2000: , increasing, in real terms, by 1.6% as against previous year. The growth was significantly determined by higher volume of activity and consequently higher gross value added from industry (+6.1%), construction (+6.3%) and services (+3.1%), which, together, represent 79.0% of gross domestic product; gross value added achieved in agriculture, forestry and fish breeding registered a fall of 15.8%, mainly due to unfavorable climatic conditions.

Main macroeconomic indicators in 2000
provisional data


2000 in % as against 1999


Weight of private sector in total economic activity - %

1999 2000
  • Gross domestic product



  • Industrial production


  • Agricultural production


93.3 94.6



91.7 92.8


96.9 96.2 97.5


109.9 62.5 62.2
  • Investment volume
105.0 57,6 63.7
  • Construction works
105.4 85.5 87.3
  • Foreign trade
    -FOB exports of goods
121.9 65.6 65.7

-CIF imports of

125.6 71.9 70.1
  • Retail trade (excepting
    motor vehicles and
96.2 93.2 94.6
  • Sale of motor vehicles
    and fuels for motor
105.8 58.2 61.4
  • Commercial services
    rendered to the
92.4 67.6 77.6
  • Consumer price index -
    yearly average
145.7 x x

-food goods (including

143.7 x x

-non-food goods

144.0 x x


153.9 x x

Source: National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies, Bucharest



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