Romania - Essential
Romania is located in SE
Central Europe, on the lower Danube and bordering on the Black Sea. The 45o
parallel of North latitude and the 25o East line of longitude is
length 3149.9 km; Borders: NE and E on the Republic
of Moldova (681.3 km); N and E on the Ukraine (649.4 km); SE
on the Black Sea (193.5 km); S on Bulgaria (631.3 km); SW on
Yugoslavian Federation (546.4 km); W on Hungary (448.0 km).
238,391 sq. km (11th
31% of Romania's surface is covered by
mountains, 33% by hills and tablelands, and the rest of 36% by plains. The
mountains - the Carpathians, feature three main groups: Eastern, Southern (the
highest - Moldoveanu Peak, in Fagarasi Mountains: 2.543 m) and Western
Carpathians. The Danube Delta, located north of the Plateau of Dobroudja,
stretches over 4.340 sq.km.
temperate continental, with slight ocean
influences in the West, Medoiterranean in the South-West and excessively
continental in the North-East.
Belonging to the family
of Romance languages, Romanian descends from the
Latin spoken in Dacia and Moesia in ancient times.
GMT + 2 hours. Since last
Sunday in March to last Sunday in October, the Daylight Saving Time applies.
Weights and Measures
The metric system is in force
1 LEU (plural - LEI) = 100 BANI
(singular - BAN). See here
County; town; commune, village. There
are: 41 counties
plus the capital,
Bucharest (with a county status); 263 towns (of which 84 municipalities);
2,688 communes (with 13,094 villages).
- Divided into six
administrative districts and the Ilfov Agricultural Sector. Situated in the
South of the country, in the Romanian Plain, at an altitude of 70-90m, on the
rivers Dambovita and Colentina, the city dates from the 14th
century. Capital of Wallachia in the 17th - 19th
centuries, then of Romania since 1862. Population
Constanta: 342,394 people; Iasi:
348,489 people; Timisoara: 329,111 people; Cluj-Napoca: 331,476 people; Galati:
338,596 people; Brasov: 314,219 people; Craiova: 314,920 people; Ploiesti:
251,348 people; Braila: 233,756 people.
On the Black Sea Coast
- Constanta; Mangalia.
Severin; Turnu Magurele; Giurgiu; Oltenita; Calarasi; Cernavoda; Braila;
Galati; Tulcea and Sulina.
On the Danube
Constanta - Mihail Kogalniceanu; Timisoara; Bucharest-Baneasa; Bacau; Baia
Mare; Caransebes; Cluj-Napoca; Craiova; Deva; Iasi; Oradea; Satu Mare; Târgu
Mures; Tulcea; Suceava; Arad; Sibiu.
(January 1st, 2001), 94.2 inh./sq.km. According to the census returns of
January 7, 1992, Romania's population structure by nationality is: Romanians
89.4%; Hungarians 7.1%; Germans 0.5%; Ukrainians 0.3%;
Jews 0.04%; Others 2.66%. About 8 million Romanians live outside
the country's boundaries. Urban population: 55%. More
Population structure by
86.8%; Roman-Catholic: 5.0%; Reformed: 3.5%; Greek-Catholic: 1%; Others: 3.7%.
Population structure by
adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 1991 proclaims " Romania
is a national, sovereign and independent, unitary and indivisible state".
Form of Government
President of Romania
President of Romania is elected directly by citizens, for maximum two
four-years mandates. The President of Romania nominates a candidate for the
post of Prime Minister and appoints the Government on the basis of the
confidence vote granted by Parliament. Last elections: November 2000. Present
President: Traian Basescu
Two Chambers Parliament: the Chamber of
Deputies and the Senate. Elected by universal vote for a
four-years term. Last elections were held in November 2000. President of the
Senate: Nicolae Vacaroiu.
President of the Chamber of Deputies: Bogdan Olteanu
Prime Minister is appointed by
the President of Romania at the proposal of the Governmental Party. Acting
Prime Minister: Calin
Three equal vertical stripes,
next to the staff blue, yellow and red.
eagle holding a cross in its beak and a sword and a scepter in its claws as
well as the symbols of the historical provinces, Wallachia, Moldavia,
Transylvania, Banat and Dobrudja.
State Anthem (since
lyrics Andrei Muresanu, music Anton Pann. (Text and
National Day (since
The First of December
(anniversary of the
1918 Union of all Romanians into one single state).
January 1 and 2; 2nd
Easter Day; May Day; December 1, December 25 and 26
for 2000: ,
increasing, in real terms, by 1.6% as against previous year. The growth
was significantly determined by higher volume of activity and consequently
higher gross value added from industry (+6.1%), construction (+6.3%) and
services (+3.1%), which, together, represent 79.0% of gross domestic product;
gross value added achieved in agriculture, forestry and fish breeding
registered a fall of 15.8%, mainly due to unfavorable climatic conditions.
indicators in 2000
2000 in %
as against 1999
private sector in total economic activity - %
- Agricultural production
- Foreign trade
-FOB exports of goods
-CIF imports of
- Retail trade (excepting
motor vehicles and
- Sale of motor vehicles
and fuels for motor
- Commercial services
rendered to the
- Consumer price index -
-food goods (including
Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies, Bucharest