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a candle for my son!

George Emil Palade, Nobel Laureate for Medicine (1974)

George Emil Palade
Romanian-born American Cell Biologist
Nobel Prize Laureate (1974) for Medecine

Born: November 19, 1912, Iasi, Romania


  • In 1945 came to the United States for postdoctoral studies and became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1952


  • M.D. from the School of Medicine of the University of Bucharest, Romania

  • Postdoctoral Studies in the USA


  • Member of the Faculty of the School of Medicine, Bucharest, until 1945
  • 1945 - came to the United States for postdoctoral studies
  • 1946 - Joined A. Claude at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research
  • 1948 - Appointed assistant professor at Rockefeller; - progressed from assistant professor to full professor of cytology and head of the department until 1973

  • 1973 - moved to Yale University Medical School as professor and chair of the Section of Cell Biology.

  • 1983 - Became a senior investigator and Advisor to the Dean

  • 1990 - Moved to University of California at San Diego as Professor of Medicine in Residence and Dean for Scientific Affairs


  • Member of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences

Prizes and Awards

  • Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine  in 1974 (shared with Albert Claude and Christian de Duve)

  • National Medal of Science, USA in 1986

  • Other Honorary Degrees and Prizes

Major Scientific Results

  • Developed tissue-preparation methods, advanced centrifuging techniques, and conducted electron microscopy studies that resulted in the discovery of several cellular structures
  • Performed many studies on the internal organization of such cell structures as mitochondria, chloroplasts, the Golgi apparatus, and others. His most important discovery was that microsomes, bodies formerly thought to be fragments of mitochondria, are actually parts of the endoplasmic reticulum (internal cellular transport system) and have a high ribonucleic acid (RNA) content. They were subsequently named ribosomes. 

Selected Publications 

1. Palade G. (1975) Intracellular aspects of the process of protein synthesis. Science 189(4200):347-358. Entrez Reference
2. Howell KE, Palade GE. (1982) Hepatic Golgi fractions resolved into membrane and content subfractions. J Cell Biol 92(3):822-832. Summary
3. Palade GE. (1983) Membrane biogenesis: an overview. Methods Enzymol 96:XXIX-LV. Entrez Reference
4. Sztul ES, Howell KE, Palade GE. (1985) Biogenesis of the polymeric IgA receptor in rat hepatocytes. II. Localization of its intracellular forms by cell fractionation studies. J Cell Biol 100(4):1255-1261. Summary
5. Sztul E, Kaplin A, Saucan L, Palade G. (1991) Protein traffic between distinct plasma membrane domains: isolation and characterization of vesicular carriers involved in transcytosis. Cell 64(1):81-89. Summary
6. Jacobson BS, Schnitzer JE, McCaffery M, Palade GE. (1992) Isolation and partial characterization of the luminal plasmalemma of microvascular endothelium from rat lungs. Eur J Cell Biol 58(2):296-306. Summary
7. Saucan L, Palade GE. (1994) Membrane and secretory proteins are transported from the Golgi complex to the sinusoidal plasmalemma of hepatocytes by distinct vesicular carriers. J Cell Biol 125(4):733-741. Summary
8. Palade GE. (1995) Protein kinesis: the dynamics of protein trafficking and stability. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 60:821-831. Entrez Reference
9. Predescu SA, Predescu DN, Palade GE. (1997) Plasmalemmal vesicles function as transcytotic carriers for small proteins in the continuous endothelium. Am J Physiol 272(2 Pt 2):H937-H949. Summary
10. Roberts WG, Palade GE. (1997) Neovasculature induced by vascular endothelial growth factor is fenestrated. Cancer Res 57(4):765-772. Summary

Contact Address:

Professor of Medicine in Residence
Department of Cellular & Molecular Medicine
Dean for Scientific Affairs 
University of California San Diego
School of Medicine - 0602
9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla CA 92093-0602

Telephone: 1-858-534-7658, Fax: 1-858-534-6573, E-Mail!

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